TCPIP architecture model

Unlike the ISO/OSI reference model, TCP/IP architecture is only divided into 4 layers. The exchange of information between the layers is again exactly defined and again, each service uses the services of a lower level and provides its services to a higher layer.
Network interface(Data link) layer
Network layer
Transport layer
Application layer Network interface layer
The lowest layer of the TCP/IP model. Its task is to provide access to the transmission physical medium and it differs according to the implementation of the medium.
Network layer
The network layer provides network addressing, routing and datagram transmission. Used protocols that will be of interest further regarding DHCP are IP and ARP.
IP protocol
It is the basic protocol of the network layer and in general the internet as a whole. It sends datagrams, which are independent units that contain information about the destination, source and the sequence number of the datagram. The sequence number is used for message reconstruction, since the delivery order of the datagrams might not be the same as their order in the message and delivery reliability isnt guaranteed at all. IP protocol versions:
IP v4 32 bit addresses. Provides approximately 4 billion unique addresses which arent sufficient at present times.
IP v6 128 bit addresses. The transition to v6 will bring (is bringing) higher security, QoS, packet segmentation and many more IP addresses. (the transition from IP v4 to IP v6 must be supported by the system provider) ARP protocol
The ARP abbreviation stands for Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol is used to find the physical address (MAC) based on a known IP address. If required ARP sends information concerning the wanted address to all the stations in the network Broadcast. The stations consequently answer with a message containing their MAC. If the wanted device/station is outside the node/segment, the appropriate router will answer instead of it.
Transport layer
The transport layer is implemented only in terminal devices and it adjusts the behavior of the network according to the requirements of the device/application.

Application layer
The application layer is composed of programs that use net services to fulfill the needs of users. Examples of specific protocols are for instance FTP, DNS and DHCP. Application protocols use TCP, UDP or both services at the same time. So called ports are used to differentiate between application protocols, they represent a type of label of the application. It is possible to change the ports in the settings of the service, but each service has a default port that isnt changed for most services and is used as an unwritten standard.
FTP = 21
DNS = 53
DHCP = 67 + 68

After The Fire Chicago’s Leading Role In Modern American Architecture

The Great Fire of 1871 reduced the vast majority of the city of Chicago to a ruined heap of brick and ash. The devastation at the time could not possibly have been seen as an opportunity, but in truth the fire created a blank slate with which the great architects of the day could experiment.

The result over the next 50 years was a transformation of a regular Midwestern city into a world-class jewel of modern architectural beauty. Although New York can lay some claim to wonders of architecture, it is Chicago that most prides itself on its innovative accomplishments. Here is a brief overview of the changes that came After The Fire.

How it used to be

In the 40 or so years before the fire, Chicago grew by leaps and bounds both in the number of buildings and in the vast number of new residents, many of which were immigrants. However, very little planning went into the growth of the city; it consisted mainly of brick and mortar office buildings, factories, and a vast sea of wood shanties that were virtually thrown up overnight to accommodate the influx of people.

Streets were made of wood and sidewalks were made of wood: when the city received very little rainfall in the summer of 1871, conditions were ripe for disaster. On October 8, a full quarter of the city’s residential areas and nearly its entire business district went up in flames and 300 lives were lost.

What happened next

Chicago was (and still is) a city with a lot of heart and a lot of spunk. Nearly immediately, 50 million dollars was pumped into rebuilding efforts: this time with plenty of planning, foresight, and ingenuity. Only the best architects and engineers were hired to do the job, and the newest techniques in steel and other construction methods were used: this city was going to be not only a showpiece, it was also going to last.

The results

The great architect Louis Sullivan coined the famous phrase: “Form follows function,” and these words would come to define the city’s new sense of style during the rebuilding. The modern skyscraper was born in the Windy City, and although the initial one is long gone, many remain to be both used and admired as architectural marvels. The modern technology of steel framework made these skyscrapers possible and they are what give Chicago its distinctive and unique skyline. Other styles of architecture thrived as well, and many Art Deco buildings grace the downtown area.

Chicago is proud of its architecture and every important building is marked with a plaque, a date, and an attached history or interesting anecdote. Chicago boat tours are a popular way to easily view and learn about these buildings, as are walking tours. No one could have predicted over 170 years ago that The Great Fire would result in an even more beautiful city that would literally rise out of the ashes: but Chicago did just that.

Modern Architect Revolutionizing The World Of Architecture

Simply put, modern architecture is a kind of style found in the building structures that have simple form without any ornamental structures to them. In actual, this style of architecture was first introduced around 1900. By 1940, modern architecture was recognized as an international style and became the most common way to build for many decades in the 20th century. Modern architect applies scientific and analytical methods to design.
According to many historians, the origins of this style of architecture is related to the social and political revolution of the time, though others see modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Of course, the availability of a range of materials such as steel, iron, concreteand glass brought about many new building techniques as part of the industrial revolution. There is a group of people who regard modern architecture as a reaction against ancient building style. Above all, it is most commonly liked as a matter of taste.
Well, for the international style, the widely popular used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support, as well as concrete for the floors and interior supports. In fact, the floor plans are logical and functional. However, most of the individuals are not fond of the modern style.In general, these people find its stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometrical designs quite inhumane. Yes, they actually think this universal style is elitist,sterile and lacks meaning.
It has been observed that modern architecture challenged traditional ideas about different types of structures perfect for architectural design. Only important civic buildings, churches, public institutions and aristocratic palaces had long been the mainstay of architectural practices. However, modernist designers quite oftenargued thatmodern architect should design everything that was necessary for society, even the most humble buildings.
In a very short time, architects started to plan low-cost housing, factories, railroad stations, warehouses, and commercial spaces as well. And, in the first half of the 20th century, modern architectbegan to produce furniture, textiles, and wallpaper – as well as designing houses in order to create a totally designed domestic environment. The main thing is that the aesthetics used by modern architects celebrated function in all possible forms of design, ranging from household furnishings to massive ocean liners and new flying machines as well.
Modern architect first came up in the United States and Europe and spread across the rest of the world. The major characteristic features that made this kind of architecture possible were stylistic movements, buildings, technology, and modern materials as well.

Minimal Architecture Redesign Your Home Interior With Small Things

Do you find small things beautiful? If yes then you would certainly love the collection of minimal architecture by our website. These things look small but they are perfect for doing big jobs. For instance take a dining table. Regular dining table is bulky but you can find an elegant table that can fit into small space and seat two pairs and two children. Another advantage of the space saving dining table is that it is light weight, maintenance free and good looking. Another good thing is that you can get it at your home at no extra cost.

Like dining table, you can find many useful accessories at minimal architecture website. The accessories are brought from factories of the world but their price remains the same. In other words, you dont need to pay for the import duties and custom charges. Also shipping is free in the US except the states of Alaska and Hawaii. If small things attract you then you would certainly praise the wonderful collection of small things at our website. The products are stored at a safe place but you can choose a product by seeing the pictures of the goods offered by the website. Click on the picture of the product, you want to buy and get its description, features and cost.

The world is becoming small and only small things can fit into this world. Pianos, leather recliners and coffee tables that used to be big now come in small sizes. There is no space for bulky objects at home and there could be no denying to this fact. Another example of small things is cars that you can see running on the highways. Small cars are preferred because they are easy to maneuver and park. If you want to use many objects at home then they ought to be small. Minimal architecture website offers a wide range of goods that can fit into small space and caters to your needs like big things.

If you are thinking about the functionality and affordability of the products offered at minimal architecture website then you should at least once visit the website. The value of small things is that they save space without requiring you to compromise on the features. But words cant describe each and everything. You need to see how beautiful small things look and whether they could set in small space or not.

Small Investments Bring Big Returns When It Comes To Professional Home Improvements

Increase the Value of Your Home and Attract Potential Buyers by Engaging a Professional Finish Carpenter–

As a finish carpenter and home improvement expert, Stephen Powers often consults home owners about ways to increase the value of their home. In todays housing market, one of the first questions people ask me about any remodeling project is whether the project will substantially increase the value of their home — when and if they decide to sell it. says Powers, the owner of The Carpenters Hands located in Albany, New York. In fact, Ive recently been approached by more and more real estate professionals who are looking for minor, inexpensive enhancements that can help increase a homes value and appeal to buyers. These professionals recognize better than anyone, the enormous return that a small investment in carpentry can make

As most professionals will agree, the general rule-of-thumb has always been that any remodeling project that will bring your home up to the level of the others in the neighborhood is a worthy investment (so, be sure to check out your neighbors home for ideas). However, another more recent consideration for improvements that will increase resale value are those which mirror new home construction features.

Many of the popular trends and good remodeling investments today mirror trends in new housing, such as adding a master suite, exercise room, a finished basement, media room or simply by enhancing an existing room with popular aesthetics using fine finish and trim work such as: crown moldings, wainscoting, coffered ceilings, new cabinetry, built-ins, redesigned mantels, fireplaces and staircases. Since potential buyers are always comparing remodeled homes with those that are newly built, it makes sense that the most sought-after amenities follow similar patterns within the new housing market and quite often, these new construction amenities are the work of a skilled finish carpenter.

Good finish carpentry can be the most important aspect of a construction or remodeling project and few contractors are as versatile and important to general home improvement as finish carpenters. Even if youre not looking to take on a major renovation, trim work projects can create the most bang for your buck when it comes to home beautification and resale value and when youre considering the right contractor for the job, anything that involves enhancing, altering, or repairing your home’s structure is probably within the realm and expertise of a finish carpenter.

If youre looking to take on a new home improvement project, Powers suggests identifying a skilled craftsman in your area with impeccable references, photos of his/her completed work, good pricing and who is both licensed and insured. He warns even the best Do-It-Yourselfers that certain projects should always be handled by a professional or the resulting effect could be a decrease in your homes value instead of an increase.

Some Thoughts About Home Improvement & Maintenance

Some of the things we do in our homes are considered home improvement and other things are considered maintenance but it can be said that, in the end, doing maintenance will usually lead to home improvement. Let me give you an example of the relationship between home improvement & maintenance. I have cats and when they were kittens they decided that certain spots on my rugs were litter boxes. After much effort, and swearing, I got them to use the litter box but the damage to the rugs was done.

I tried maintenance like cleaning and things like that but in the end I wound up cutting huge chunks of my fairly new rugs up to get rid of the smell and stop the cats from damaging more of the rugs. My wife loves hardwood floors so now she has decided that since the cats have ruined the rugs, and my attempts to clean the rugs have not been totally successful.

We will now have hardwood floors. That is the relationship between home improvement & maintenance, sometimes continued maintenance on a problem area can lead to an act of home improvement that, in the end, was probably the best thing for that whole situation in the first place.

Another example of the relationship between home improvement & maintenance is my back porch gutters. I have my roof, which of course has gutters on it, and then my deck is all in my back yard. I live in snow country so the snow can accumulate in the gutters if not watched. I have been maintaining the situation for a couple years by getting a telescoping device that allows me to get the snow off my roof so it cannot get into my house by melting.

But, it is obvious that this maintenance is temporary and home improvement by way of new eaves is necessary. But this is the dynamic between home improvement & maintenance, you do maintenance for as long as you can and then eventually home improvement is needed. It is just a matter of getting a good feel for that relationship between home improvement & maintenance and knowing when it is time to do home improvement.

Don’t Wait Too Long

Sometimes maintenance measures may seem like they are working but then you find out the hard way that they are not. If you have been patching your roof for some time you may think everything is fine but water could be getting in where you can’t see it and then that home improvement & maintenance dynamic needs to shift to home improvement before real damage, or more damage, is done. It is important to always know when it is time to stop maintaining and start improving.

Keep an eye on your house and do not dismiss any potential problem as small or petty. Sometimes it is the smallest problems that grow up to be the biggest headaches and that is something you need to understand in the balance between home improvement & maintenance.

Things That Needs A Consideration Before Landscape Architecture

Interiors design greatly depends upon the fact that how well your landscape represents itself. Elegance of the post modern era and now in the modern times landscape has always carried the visitors eye catch path, hence its of the utmost importance that your landscape architect carries these specialization as a landscape is a broad field and may cater to various fields:
Public safety and hygiene.
Campus landscape design for educational institutions.
Promote parks, Wildlife and eco friendly products.
Assessments of private and non private firm for Landscape Architect.
Redesign of the old monuments and historic things with proper planning.
Public utility design.
Mentioned points are one of the numerous functions that have to be handled and functions to be looked upon by the landscape architect.
Products used in the landscape designing plays a very essential role both in building a monument, home and a country in total. Stop and think about the products you intend to use before you start landscaping. Home landscapers may use products for landscape that may pollute the water bodies by toxic chemicals and other fertilizers. Smart landscaping reduces water pollution.
Landscape products like bullnose step treads and Pilasters are used for the iconic representation and beautify the creation. Outdoor Architecture for steps can be designed and built in an array of different looks and styles.
This landscape design combination should be designed and built by a professional landscape architect because there are so many variables. It takes a pro to mesh this combination into a thing of beauty.

Lead A Better Life Through Home Improvement

Your daily attitude and the way you feel is closely related to your home and how it makes you feel. If you think about it, you spend a lot of your time there. If you don’t work outside the home, you spend even more time in the house. The comfort level of your home is an important factor in the way you feel about your daily life. You should insist that your home is somewhere you want to spend your time, it will make you feel better. Here are some smart tips for making your house feel like home.

When considering home improvements, keep your own comfort in mind. No home is perfect, but make up your mind to transform those more serious flaws that cause you daily irritation. Small transformations of this sort can brighten your everyday life. Things like replacing old, uncomfortable furniture can enhance the way your home looks and feels.

Try expanding the space you have. Being confined in the living area will prevent you from adequately rearranging the space. Solve this with an expansion. Even increasing the space by several feet can make a big difference.

If you expand your home with recreational areas, it will be more enjoyable. Fixtures like pools, hot tubs, and tether-ball poles serve the dual purpose of giving you more things to do around the house and increasing your home’s value.

Consider the lighting in your home. By bringing light into a formerly dark corner of your home, you will brighten the space as well as make the room look more spacious and welcoming. Replacing burnt out bulbs or changing the color or wattage of old bulbs is a simple way to make a room seem brighter and more inviting. Take this simple DIY project a step further by also updating your lighting fixtures.

Turning your backyard into a beautiful garden makes it feel like you are walking in a nice park. Whether you tend the garden yourself or hire a professional, you are sure to enjoy the many pleasures and positive aspects offered by this type of outdoor space. A garden is a place where stress melts away; where you breathe deeply of fresh, clean air. It is a place where you can relax amidst the beautiful flowers you have chosen to grow, or pick fresh herbs and vegetables for your dinner.

There are lots of ways to improve your home’s exterior. That way, you will be happy to see your home every time you come home.

Home improvement projects can have a tremendously positive effect on your mood and the quality of your life by making all the time you spend within your home more pleasant. Because of this, anything you can do to improve your home will benefit the house and your personal satisfaction.

Affording New Projects With Home Improvement Loans

A homeowner’s job is never done; there are always new maintenance projects to get working on. It is well worth the time and effort, since doing so is an investment in your home’s worth. But getting together the money it takes to go ahead with large projects, such as replacing the roof, remodeling, or building an addition, can be difficult. You can get a home improvement loan so that you can begin on your improvement project. If you are careful about choosing a loan with good terms and rates, you can benefit greatly.

Home improvements loans are unsecured and do not require collateral, though their funds must be used to finance on home improvement projects. If you do not want to take away from the equity you have built in your home, these loans are a better choice than home equity loans. They are charged higher fees and may be added onto the principal of your mortgage.

On the other hand, home improvement loans can be taken out in small quantities and the application process is easy. If you only plan on borrowing a small amount, you may want to look into a line of credit; otherwise, a fixed rate loan is your best option.

Taking out home improvement loans give you quite a bit of flexibility when it comes to how you will handle a home improvement project. You can opt to work on your home yourself or hire a contractor and pay them with the funds from your loan. If you speak with a local real estate agent, you can figure out which home improvement projects do the most for the value of your home. That way your project can be a very valuable investment in your home.

Comparing rates from several agencies is the best way to get an excellent rate on your loan. No two loans will be exactly the same; lenders can make small adjustments to the terms. You can learn more about current rates and how interest affects your loan by using free online services. Online, you can view many lenders at once and see what rates they are offering. Thinking about these factors will allow you to make the best choice possible when selecting home improvement loans.

Cost Effective Garage Home Improvement Ideas

Garage is one of the most neglected areas of the house. For majority of us, a garage is nothing more than a place to park your car, or a store where you can put all the unusable items of your house. You can add a lot of space to your house by making the home improvement in the garage area efficiently and increasing its usability. A small effort on your part to reorganize the garage will transform your garage into a more usable space.

If you have been neglecting the idea of garage home improvement due to the risk of losing your storage area then you may even build a shed attached to your house to store your tools or sports equipments. And if your garage is spacious enough, then you may put it to many usages simultaneously.

A garage can be effectively transformed into an office, a workshop or even a studio. It makes sense for those who like to work at a close proximity to their home. You can have all the comforts as your home including heating or cooling, internet connectivity, phone wiring and all others features that you may need at any workplace.

Some effective garage home improvement ideas

1.Raising the garage roof: Raising the garage roof will certainly add more working space to your garage. You can have a low roof floor to accommodate the storage.
2.Adding a new room: Adding a new room to your garage will give you loads of additional workspace. It will not only add value to your home, but it will also give you more space without affecting your daily life as there are no changes in the internal floor plan of the house.
3.Use it as laundry: A garage can be effectively utilized as a laundry room. Shifting your laundry room from basement to garage will save you from going up and downstairs repetitively while you do your laundry. An upstairs laundry room also adds to the monetary value of your home.
4.Music studio: If you or your child is an ardent fan of the Beetles and even sing like them, then convert your garage into a music studio where you can play some real music and tone up your skills. But before you start with the music studio get your garage soundproof to avoid discomfort to neighbors.
5.Home office: Most women prefer to work from home so that they can effectively manage both work and home. However working from home is never easy due to the numerous distractions including visitors, TV, dishes and laundry. A garage work office will save you from at least some of these distractions while giving you the option to take care of your home along with working. It also saves time in commuting.
6.A mud room: Dedicate a small part of your garage as a mud room. It will help you to keep your home clean by keeping the outside dirt away from home.