Victorian Architecture – Where Culture Meet Elegance

The term Victorian architecture refers to a number of styles of architecture, which was primarily used during the Victorian period. These architectural styles were quite popular during the period of mid 1837 to the beginning of 1901. This period marked the rule of Queen Victoria and was named after her.

The Victorian era of architecture, was marked by a number of styles, such as Renaissance Revival, Neo-Grec, British Arts and Crafts movement, Italianate, Gothic Revival, Jacobethan, Neoclassicism, Industrial architecture, Painted ladies, Queen Anne, Stick-Eastlake, Romanesque Revival, as well as Second Empire.

There have also been Folk as well as Shingle Style Victorian Houses. As it is, the names of the architectural styles, apart from their adaptations had varied between the countries. Several homes merged the elements of various styles and therefore are not easily discernible as one particular style. In the United States, highly decorated houses have often been addressed to as gingerbread houses.

Some of the most prominent Victorian era cities include Richmond, London, Toronto, Boston, St. Louis, Louisville, Saint Paul, Galena, Nelson, Sydney, Melbourne, IL, Galveston, Chicago, Detroit, San Francisco, Glasgow, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pittsburgh, Manchester, Philadelphia, Grand Rapids, as well as New Orleans.

In the United States, the South End of the city of Boston has been recognized as the oldest, as well as the largest Victorian neighborhood of the country. Old Louisville in Kentucky is also believed to be one of the largest Victorian neighborhood of America.

Apart from that, Richmond, Virginia is also home to a number of large Victorian neighborhoods, with the Fan and Church Hill, being the most prominent. Church Hill enjoys the distinction of being a place where Patrick Henry had given his famous speech at the historic Saint John’s church.

The Distillery District of Toronto is home to the largest as well as the best preserved collection of industrial architecture of the Victorian-era in North America. Apart from that, Cabbage town has been the largest as well as the most continuous Victorian style residential area of North America. The other Victorian neighborhoods of Toronto include Annex, Corktown, Park dale, as well as Rosedale.

The Old West End neighborhood in Toledo, Ohio has been recognized as the one having the biggest collection of the late Victorian as well as Edwardian architectural homes of the United States. Carroll Avenue of Los Angeles contains the city’s highest concentration of homes of Victorian style.

There is something really fascinating about the Victorian era and almost everything related to this period, continues to fascinate us to this date, especially Victorian architecture.

Homeowners are benefiting from the economic downturn with home improvements.

Financial Crisis, economic slow down, downturn in the housing market has an impact on home improvements that can benefit the homeowner.

Consumer confidence is close to the lowest it’s been since the late 80’s. Home prices are dropping, foreclosures are rising, and fuel costs are high. While the news can be depressing, the impact can benefit homeowners planning home improvements. The housing slump is affecting home remodeling contractors and the home improvement stores that supply the construction materials.

Many home improvement and lumber merchants are starting campaigns to mark down prices. “This is providing the homeowner with more bargaining power and less expensive home improvement projects.” Said Debra, owner of Westmoreland Contractor Referral Service, in Greensburg. Pa. The housing slump is introducing new competition into the remodeling arena. Smaller homebuilders are actually diversifying their businesses to survive the downturn. Construction companies are looking into every aspect of their business and making adjustments. The result for the homeowner is lower material costs and reduced overhead cost, which results in an overall reduction in the cost of home repairs and remodeling.

Contractors are feeling the impact of the economic slow down which provides a unique benefit to the homeowner. Contractors can now purchase materials at lower prices and are able to pass these savings along to the homeowner. The slow down gives the homeowner the added benefit of contractor availability. A few months ago, a phone call might not have been returned as quickly as it will now. Contractors are working hard to find new business and keep their employees working. They’re literally looking for more business that they normally would pass on. “Homeowners now have more remodelers to choose from.” Debra said. “However, caution should be taken to ensure that the contractor is insured and is qualified to do the project.” Debra is the owner of Westmoreland Contractor Referral Service, which is a company that provides a free service to the homeowner by matching a prescreened qualified contractor based on the project specifications.

Homeowners that feel good about their equity situation should consider a home improvement project now. The benefits of home improvements can include not only savings on the cost but also can add value to the home and depending on the type of project can help to make a home more energy efficient.

Prospective homebuyers are now holding off on purchasing a new home and are finding that home updating, additions, and renovations are a more economical decision. “Instead of buying a new home.” Debra said. “They are adding on and renovating.” Even in severe downturns, people need to update and maintain their homes. Where some home improvements were not affordable a few months ago, now they are and homeowners can cash in on the deals. “Bottom line, if you have been putting off the home remodeling project and have the cash, now is the time to start that project.” Said Debra.

Basic Carpentry – Home Tools For Any Beginner

Gimlet and also bradawl would be the other tools necessary in making holes in different types of wood and also for screwing as well as nailing various sections of wood. Just before beginning this kind of work you’ll require hand drills that are readily obtainable in the market. Ordinary looking hand drills together with various sized twist drills can be found in the hand drill package with regard to drilling holes in various kinds of wood. For drilling holes in the hard wood planks the breast drill fits best.

Basic tools are the most effective:

Simple looking tools are just sufficient for use if you are a rookie. Skilled carpenters and also workers need specifically designed tools to have the ability to perform complicated as well as faster kinds of labor. Newbies are not too familiar with regards to using different home tools. A carpenter who is a beginner has to utilize more pressure while using tools such as twist drill, as well as has to get it done with skill, otherwise the twist drill could bend and actually break.

When purchasing hand drills, you will also get the drill bits included in the package. With regard to light drilling jobs the Archimedean drill is obtainable in the market, which could be used on lighter woods. Holes in solid wood can be drilled by the carpenter’s brace for drilling holes of huge diameters. Auger bits are useful for drilling big holes.

Tools – practicality and also efficiency:

Screw drivers can be purchased in several sizes as well as these are an essential tool in the home kit. Bigger wood screws need the cabinet type screw driver, whilst the working on some other kinds of screws, the pump action style of screw is better. Force needs to be applied when using a screw driver and a novice needs to be very careful while he uses the screw driver similar to the slide, his fingers might get trapped. Many of the screw drivers such as the Philip screw driver and also the standard purpose screw drivers have grips that are flattened and help in gripping the tool better.

A number of fundamental tools utilized by carpenters would be the special tipped drills for drilling holes in walls. Drilling light and finer holes can be achieved with the Archimedean drill and point tipped drill bits. For cutting large circles in wood that is not really too thick, a beginner has to likewise purchase the hole-saw for cutting bigger circles. For boring holes in wood a screw driver needs to be completely avoided. Besides the above mentioned home tools, we should not forget the most important tool, and that’s the hammer. They’re a must in every house, as they are used for nailing a nail or perhaps used for pulling out nails from the walls as well as pieces of wood. While working on metal, the mechanics hammer as well as the Warrington hammer must be used. With regard to heavy duty work the sledge hammer suits best.

Architecture Jobs In India Through Online Job Consultants

Internet is gaining popularity due to its extensive usage and high quality performance. It is best for professional and personal jobs equally. It is very difficult to get desired architecture jobs in India. However, only a select few are available for jobs in this category.

Candidates can apply through online consultants to get the desired profile and desired job easily. Architecture jobs are available in abundance with the online job consultants. And moreover there is no demand for extra fees to pay to them. People can easily register with these consultants and make their future bright.

Online job consultants can be searched by typing the keywords like online job consultants, job in India, search jobs in India and the results will be displayed for different consultants available online. Candidates should search for the first few online job consultants and read their profile. They can also prepare a resume to fill in each and every detail as asked in the form available on different online job consultants websites.

Candidates can mention the preference of work place, so that jobs in India are suggested as per their choice of place. People searching for jobs online need to be very attentive and very punctual in checking their mails. Suppose, there is some suitable architecture job in Chennai-suggestion from the online job portal and you have not opened the mail then the job can be taken over by the person who responded to it promptly. So it is very essential for the candidate to take care of the responses from the job consultants and react fast for best job opportunities.

One can find jobs in India through these consultants at anytime of the day be it twelve in noons or twelve at night. Users can upload data, search for response and apply to the company at their own convenient time and place.

Qualitytips For Do It Yourself Home Improvement

Regardless of whether you just want visual improvements to your surroundings, or you want to boost the value of your investment, home improvement projects are great for just about everyone. Consider the tips in this article before you begin your next home improvement.

It’s important that you are having fun in any home improvement job you choose. While you do need to take the work seriously, it should still be fun. You may mess up if you aren’t enjoying yourself. Consider hiring a professional if you feel that this is happening to you.

Designate ample space for trash and debris when planning out your renovation project. Demolition can make quite a mess, and you will need a space for it. By planning a spot to put this debris, you won’t end up with piles getting in your way.

Vacuum cabinets before cleaning them. The loose dirt will be easier to remove. Use soap and water to scrub your shelves and cabinets clean. Start at the highest point and move down as you clean. If there are liners present, this would be a great time to replace those and also repair anything that needs repairing, such as sagging shelves.

Reputable contractors do not expect all of the money to be paid upfront before the job starts. $2,500 is about the most you should pay up front, and not more than 10 percent when work begins. Never pay more than needed.

For a peaceful feel in any room, choose analogous colors. Analogous color schemes are right next to one another in the color wheel, a good example is red and orange, violet and blue, or green and yellow. This type of color scheme is more relaxing and is especially suited to areas like the bedroom or family room.

Watch out for local weather. If you generally have a lot of rain or inclement weather, you may need to think of outdoor projects that will help combat that. You could add a roof and wind-breaking elements to help with the issue, but they are going to cost you much more money that you may not want to invest.

Building and installing a home bar in the basement is a fun and worthwhile project. It can be a real passion project for many that like to design their own bigger projects. No matter the design or approach, adding a bar to the home can be a great improvement.

Do not let home improvement intimidate you. Home improvement is something that anyone can do. No matter if it’s something as simple as a new paint job or a whole new kitchen, it can bring comfort and value to your home. Take the advice written in this article, and go to the nearest home improvement shop to get started.

Drafting And Architecture Training

Are you seeking drafting and architecture training? If so, you must understand that in order to become a legal, practicing architect in the United States, you are required to follow a specific educational path, and be licensed.

To attain a professional license, future architects must first attain professional drafting and architecture training from a qualified school. Upon successful graduation, candidates are required to participate in an internship to continue their drafting and architecture training. After that, the student may go on to taking the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) and must receive passing scores on all divisions.

If you are wondering what drafting and architecture training really consists of, the coursework will generally include related subjects such as architectural history, theory, building design, construction techniques, liberal arts, math, physical sciences, professional practice, arts and design, and computer aided drafting (CAD).

If you are serious about a career in drafting and architecture, then a vocational school or community college is a good place to gain your footing. Most employers are seeking experienced and well-educated candidates, so it is important to obtain a solid background in academics and technologies suited for the dual career. Drafting and architecture training that can be transferred to a 4-year college can be used as a stepping stone to a Bachelor Degree in Architecture and Drafting. Some vocational schools offer comprehensive technical training that will lead to a certificate or diploma of completion; others may offer an Associate Degree.

Aspiring professionals who have completed their vocational drafting and architecture training, and have successfully met all requirements of licensure, may earn anywhere from $25,000 to nearly $100,000 per year, depending on combined education and experience.

If you would like to learn more about Drafting and Architecture Training and Drafting and Architecture Schools, or even Online Drafting and Architecture Schools, you can find more in-depth information and resources on our website.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERAL OVERVIEW and may or may not reflect specific practices, courses and/or services associated with ANY ONE particular school(s) that is or is not advertised on our website.

Copyright 2007 – All rights reserved by Media Positive Communications, Inc.

Notice: Publishers are free to use this article on an ezine or website, provided the article is reprinted in its entirety, including copyright and disclaimer, and ALL links remain intact and active.

TCPIP architecture model

Unlike the ISO/OSI reference model, TCP/IP architecture is only divided into 4 layers. The exchange of information between the layers is again exactly defined and again, each service uses the services of a lower level and provides its services to a higher layer.
Network interface(Data link) layer
Network layer
Transport layer
Application layer Network interface layer
The lowest layer of the TCP/IP model. Its task is to provide access to the transmission physical medium and it differs according to the implementation of the medium.
Network layer
The network layer provides network addressing, routing and datagram transmission. Used protocols that will be of interest further regarding DHCP are IP and ARP.
IP protocol
It is the basic protocol of the network layer and in general the internet as a whole. It sends datagrams, which are independent units that contain information about the destination, source and the sequence number of the datagram. The sequence number is used for message reconstruction, since the delivery order of the datagrams might not be the same as their order in the message and delivery reliability isnt guaranteed at all. IP protocol versions:
IP v4 32 bit addresses. Provides approximately 4 billion unique addresses which arent sufficient at present times.
IP v6 128 bit addresses. The transition to v6 will bring (is bringing) higher security, QoS, packet segmentation and many more IP addresses. (the transition from IP v4 to IP v6 must be supported by the system provider) ARP protocol
The ARP abbreviation stands for Address Resolution Protocol. This protocol is used to find the physical address (MAC) based on a known IP address. If required ARP sends information concerning the wanted address to all the stations in the network Broadcast. The stations consequently answer with a message containing their MAC. If the wanted device/station is outside the node/segment, the appropriate router will answer instead of it.
Transport layer
The transport layer is implemented only in terminal devices and it adjusts the behavior of the network according to the requirements of the device/application.

Application layer
The application layer is composed of programs that use net services to fulfill the needs of users. Examples of specific protocols are for instance FTP, DNS and DHCP. Application protocols use TCP, UDP or both services at the same time. So called ports are used to differentiate between application protocols, they represent a type of label of the application. It is possible to change the ports in the settings of the service, but each service has a default port that isnt changed for most services and is used as an unwritten standard.
FTP = 21
DNS = 53
DHCP = 67 + 68

After The Fire Chicago’s Leading Role In Modern American Architecture

The Great Fire of 1871 reduced the vast majority of the city of Chicago to a ruined heap of brick and ash. The devastation at the time could not possibly have been seen as an opportunity, but in truth the fire created a blank slate with which the great architects of the day could experiment.

The result over the next 50 years was a transformation of a regular Midwestern city into a world-class jewel of modern architectural beauty. Although New York can lay some claim to wonders of architecture, it is Chicago that most prides itself on its innovative accomplishments. Here is a brief overview of the changes that came After The Fire.

How it used to be

In the 40 or so years before the fire, Chicago grew by leaps and bounds both in the number of buildings and in the vast number of new residents, many of which were immigrants. However, very little planning went into the growth of the city; it consisted mainly of brick and mortar office buildings, factories, and a vast sea of wood shanties that were virtually thrown up overnight to accommodate the influx of people.

Streets were made of wood and sidewalks were made of wood: when the city received very little rainfall in the summer of 1871, conditions were ripe for disaster. On October 8, a full quarter of the city’s residential areas and nearly its entire business district went up in flames and 300 lives were lost.

What happened next

Chicago was (and still is) a city with a lot of heart and a lot of spunk. Nearly immediately, 50 million dollars was pumped into rebuilding efforts: this time with plenty of planning, foresight, and ingenuity. Only the best architects and engineers were hired to do the job, and the newest techniques in steel and other construction methods were used: this city was going to be not only a showpiece, it was also going to last.

The results

The great architect Louis Sullivan coined the famous phrase: “Form follows function,” and these words would come to define the city’s new sense of style during the rebuilding. The modern skyscraper was born in the Windy City, and although the initial one is long gone, many remain to be both used and admired as architectural marvels. The modern technology of steel framework made these skyscrapers possible and they are what give Chicago its distinctive and unique skyline. Other styles of architecture thrived as well, and many Art Deco buildings grace the downtown area.

Chicago is proud of its architecture and every important building is marked with a plaque, a date, and an attached history or interesting anecdote. Chicago boat tours are a popular way to easily view and learn about these buildings, as are walking tours. No one could have predicted over 170 years ago that The Great Fire would result in an even more beautiful city that would literally rise out of the ashes: but Chicago did just that.

Modern Architect Revolutionizing The World Of Architecture

Simply put, modern architecture is a kind of style found in the building structures that have simple form without any ornamental structures to them. In actual, this style of architecture was first introduced around 1900. By 1940, modern architecture was recognized as an international style and became the most common way to build for many decades in the 20th century. Modern architect applies scientific and analytical methods to design.
According to many historians, the origins of this style of architecture is related to the social and political revolution of the time, though others see modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Of course, the availability of a range of materials such as steel, iron, concreteand glass brought about many new building techniques as part of the industrial revolution. There is a group of people who regard modern architecture as a reaction against ancient building style. Above all, it is most commonly liked as a matter of taste.
Well, for the international style, the widely popular used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support, as well as concrete for the floors and interior supports. In fact, the floor plans are logical and functional. However, most of the individuals are not fond of the modern style.In general, these people find its stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometrical designs quite inhumane. Yes, they actually think this universal style is elitist,sterile and lacks meaning.
It has been observed that modern architecture challenged traditional ideas about different types of structures perfect for architectural design. Only important civic buildings, churches, public institutions and aristocratic palaces had long been the mainstay of architectural practices. However, modernist designers quite oftenargued thatmodern architect should design everything that was necessary for society, even the most humble buildings.
In a very short time, architects started to plan low-cost housing, factories, railroad stations, warehouses, and commercial spaces as well. And, in the first half of the 20th century, modern architectbegan to produce furniture, textiles, and wallpaper – as well as designing houses in order to create a totally designed domestic environment. The main thing is that the aesthetics used by modern architects celebrated function in all possible forms of design, ranging from household furnishings to massive ocean liners and new flying machines as well.
Modern architect first came up in the United States and Europe and spread across the rest of the world. The major characteristic features that made this kind of architecture possible were stylistic movements, buildings, technology, and modern materials as well.

Minimal Architecture Redesign Your Home Interior With Small Things

Do you find small things beautiful? If yes then you would certainly love the collection of minimal architecture by our website. These things look small but they are perfect for doing big jobs. For instance take a dining table. Regular dining table is bulky but you can find an elegant table that can fit into small space and seat two pairs and two children. Another advantage of the space saving dining table is that it is light weight, maintenance free and good looking. Another good thing is that you can get it at your home at no extra cost.

Like dining table, you can find many useful accessories at minimal architecture website. The accessories are brought from factories of the world but their price remains the same. In other words, you dont need to pay for the import duties and custom charges. Also shipping is free in the US except the states of Alaska and Hawaii. If small things attract you then you would certainly praise the wonderful collection of small things at our website. The products are stored at a safe place but you can choose a product by seeing the pictures of the goods offered by the website. Click on the picture of the product, you want to buy and get its description, features and cost.

The world is becoming small and only small things can fit into this world. Pianos, leather recliners and coffee tables that used to be big now come in small sizes. There is no space for bulky objects at home and there could be no denying to this fact. Another example of small things is cars that you can see running on the highways. Small cars are preferred because they are easy to maneuver and park. If you want to use many objects at home then they ought to be small. Minimal architecture website offers a wide range of goods that can fit into small space and caters to your needs like big things.

If you are thinking about the functionality and affordability of the products offered at minimal architecture website then you should at least once visit the website. The value of small things is that they save space without requiring you to compromise on the features. But words cant describe each and everything. You need to see how beautiful small things look and whether they could set in small space or not.